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Delphi, Greece
Delfos, uno de los más famosos lugares de culto de Grecia
Delfos, situada en las laderas del Monte Parnaso, por encima del Golfo de Corinto, es uno de los más famosos lugares de culto de Grecia, famoso en todo el mundo de la Grecia Antigua y más allá por su santuario de Apolo y el santuario de su oráculo. EL sitio está en las listas junto con la Acrópolis de Atenas, Olympia y la isla de Delos como uno de los sitios más importantes del periodo clásico de Grecia; y la riqueza de sus restos antiguos combina su magnífica ubicación en la montaña hacen de Delfos uno de los puntos álgidos de una visita a Grecia. Las dos peñas conocidas como Phaidriades (Las Resplandecientes), Phlemboúkos (Flameante) y Rodiní (la Roja), encierran un barranco rocoso que contiene la fuente Castalia, en tiempos antiguos había un santuario a la Madre Tierra, Gea, guardada por un gran dragón llamado Pitón. El mito relata que el dios del Sol, Apolo, mató a Pitón y tras un tiempo de expiación en el valle de Tempe en Tesalia, se convirtió en el señor del santuario como Apolo Pitio. El momento en el que ocurrió este cambio está indicado por el hecho de que los ídolos femeninos que se entregaban como ofrenda en el santuario comenzaron a dar paso a los ídolos masculinos en el siglo IX A.C. Pero aunque la deidad masculina había así desplazado a la diosa anterior, una mujer todavía jugaba el papel central en el culto del oráculo de Delfos, que estaba a la altura de Olympia como santuario pan helénico. Esta era la Pitía, quien se sentaba en un trípode en el santuario más profundo del templo y cuyas tartamudeantes palabras “oraculares” eran transmitidas por sacerdotes y profetas a aquellos que buscaban el consejo del oráculo, Durante los tres meses de invierno Apolo viajaba al norte a la tierra de los Hiperbóreos y era reemplazado por Dionisio. Las profecías del oráculo continuaban durante este periodo. Muchas de las profecías del oráculo son conocidas, datan de los tiempos micénicos (segundo milenio A.C.). En esos primeros tiempos el oráculo le dijo a Orestes que podía expiar el asesinato de su madre yendo a buscar la imagen de culto de Artemisa del Tauro en Escita. En tiempos histórico tres de las profecías de oráculo fueron particularmente notables. Sobre el 680 A.C. dirigió a los habitantes de Megara para fundar la ciudad de Bizancio en el Bósforo (la futura Constantinopla). En el 547 A.C. le dijo a Creso, rey de Lydia en Asia Menor, que si cruzaba cierto río destruiría un gran reino: después de lo cual Creso cruzó el río Halys y fue derrotado por los persas, destruyendo así su propio reino. En el 480 A.C. el oráculo declaró que Atenas, por entonces amenazada por los persas, sería invencible tras una muralla de madera; y así fue cuando la flota construida por Temístocles (la “muralla de madera”) derrotó a los persas en la batalla de Salamina. Tal y como muestran estos ejemplos, el oráculo de Delfos, que llegó a la cima de su influencia en los siglos séptimo y sexto A.C. jugaron un papel en el establecimiento de colonias griegas y en llegar a decisiones políticas; y no menos significativa fue la influencia de Apolo, el díos que garantizaba la expiación y que hacía las leyes, en el desarrollo de la ética y la ley griega. Los receptores de los consejos del oráculo expresaban su gratitud con ofrendas votivas, que trajeron gran riqueza a Delfos, muchas de ellas guardadas en tesorerías construidas en las ciudades individuales. Mucho de esto se ha perdido, pero algunos objetos importantes todavía se pueden ver en el museo de Delfos; y la columna Serpentina de bronce erigida en Delfos en el 479 A.C. tras la victoria de Atenas sobre Persia en Plataitai todavía se puede ver en el hipódromo de Estambul. Delfos disfrutó de un periodo final de prosperidad en el reinado de Adriano (segundo siglo A.D.), pero terminó sus días dañada por un terremoto y el edicto de Teodosio I en el 392 A.D. cerrando todos los santuarios paganos. Después el pequeño y modesto pueblo de Kastrí creció entre las ruinas del templo. El sitio fue redescubierto por el arqueólogo alemán Ulrichs, y excavado por arqueólogos franceses desde 1892 en adelante. Una visita a Delfos consta de tres partes: el templo de Apolo, con el estadio; la fuente Castalia y el templo de Atenea en Marmariá, y el Museo.

Jerusalem, Israel
Historia de Jerusalem
En el 688 A.C., el Templo fue limpiado, las murallas se construyeron alrededor de la ciudad y se excavó un túnel para asegurarse el abastecimiento de agua. En el 628 A.C. Josías convirtió a Jerusalén en el único lugar legítimo de culto judío (2 Reyes 22f). En el 587 la ciudad fue capturada por Nabucodonosor y muchos de sus habitantes fueron llevados a Babilonia. Después del final de los babilonios. Cautividad, en el 520 A.C., se construyó el segundo Templo. En 445 A.C. Nehemías construyó una nueva muralla. En el 332 A.C. Jerusalén cayó bajo dominio griego y fue cada vez más helenizada. La profanación del Templo por Antíoco IV desató el levantamiento de los macabeos del 167 A.C. Bajo los macabeos y los asmoneos la ciudad creció hacia el oeste sobre el monte Zion. En el 63 A.C. pasó a control romano, y en el 37 A.C. Herodes, un idumeo, se convirtió en rey de los judíos. Reconstruyó y embelleció el la plataforma del Templo y equipó a la ciudad con palacios, una ciudadela, un teatro, un hipódromo, un ágora y otros edificios según el modelo helénico y romano. Tras su muerte en el 4 A.C. Jerusalén se convirtió en la ciudad de los altos sacerdotes, bajo los procuradores romanos. Desde el 41 al 44 fue gobernada por Agripa I, quien extendió la ciudad hacia el norte, construyendo la Tercera Muralla (Norte). En el 70 A.D. Jerusalén fue destruida por Tito, para ser reconstruida por Adriano desde el 135 en adelante bajo el nombre de Aelia Capitolina. Jerusalén se convirtió en una ciudad Cristiana en 326, cuando el emperador Constantino y su madre, Helena, construyeron numerosas iglesias. La emperatriz Eudoxia, esposa de Teodosio II, que vivió en Jerusalén desde el 444 hasta el 460, y el emperador Justiniano (527-565) también construyeron iglesias en la ciudad. Esta era finalizó cuando Jerusalén fue capturada por los persas en el 614. Fue recuperada por los bizantinos en el 627, pero en el 638 fur conquistada por los ejércitos del Islam. De ahí en adelanta los califas Omeyas construyeron la Cúpula de la Roca y la Mezquita El-Aqsa. Un periodo posterior de dominio cristiano comenzó en 1099 con la conquista de la ciudad por los Cruzados, quienes construyeron numerosas iglesias, palacios y hospicios. El Islam volvió a Jerusalén, sin embargo, cuando Saladino capturó la ciudad en 1187, y permaneció en manos musulmanas bajo los mamelucos (1291-1517) y los otomanos (1519-1917), quienes construyeron las actuales murallas de la ciudad (1537). En el siglo XIX los poderes cristianos de Europa, que habían apoyado al sultán turco en contra del soberano egipcio Ibrahim Bajá, ganaron una creciente influencia desde 1840 en adelante, y se construyeron en este momento numerosas iglesias, colegios, hospitales y orfanatos. El Papa reestableció el Patriarcado Latino, que había sido fundado originalmente en 1099 pero luego disuelto en 1291. En 1845 se estableció una sede episcopal conjunta anglo-prusiana. La Sociedad Alemana del Templo fundó un asentamiento en Jerusalén (cerca de la estación) en 1873, y en 1881 los miembros de un grupo sueco-americano establecieron la Colonia Americana (al norte de la Puerta de Damasco). En diciembre de 1917 las fuerzas británicas bajo el General Allenby entraron en la ciudad, y el 1 de julio de 1920 se convirtió en el asiento de Alto Comisionado Británico en el mandato del territorio de Palestina. En 1925 se estableció la Universidad Hebrea. Las Naciones Unidas resolvieron en 1947 que Palestina debía ser dividida entre árabes y judíos y que Jerusalén debía ser internacionalizada. Tras el fin del Mandato Británico en 1948 las fuerzas israelíes y jordanas lucharon para controlar la ciudad, y bajo un acuerdo de alto el fuego en 1949 fue divida. En 1950 los israelíes hicieron a la parte occidental de Jerusalén la capital de su estado, después tras la Guerra de los Seis días de 1967 se anexaron Jerusalén oriental. Hubo más problemas en 1980, cuando los israelíes declararon a Jerusalén, incluyendo la Cuidad Vieja árabe, como la “capital eterna de Israel”

Greenland, Barbados
What to do in Greenland
You´ll experience icebergs almost everywhere in Greenland. In the Disko Bay, icebergs often rise up to 100 meters above the waterline - keep in mind that 90 percent of an iceberg is hidden below the surface of the sea. The world´s most active glacier at Ilulissat moves 25-30 meters a day and calves across a front 10 kilometers in width. Visiting the ice cap is possible from most towns in Greenland, although it usually takes a helicopter flight or a boat trip to reach the edge of the inland ice. In Kangerlussuaq the ice cap is only 20 kilometers away and you can hike, drive, fly or mountain bike to there - and stay overnight if you bring a tent. Springtime is the best season for dog-sledge tours and skiing although Greenland also offers first class summer skiing, even heli-skiing, on glaciers, and dog-sledge tours in the summer. Greenland hosts several international events related to ice & snow; such as the Arctic Circle Race regarded as the toughest ski race in the world, the Ice Golf World Championships, and the Nuuk Snow Sculpture Festival. As a neighbour to the North Pole, Greenland has an Arctic climate, although there are great differences from north to south, and from coast to inland. Generally speaking, the climate is very dry, and as a result, temperatures feel quite different from most other places in the world. 10-15 degrees Celsius (50-60 degrees Fahrenheit) feels very warm, while minus 10 degrees Celsius (14 degrees Fahrenheit) is equivalent to a comfortable temperature. The breathtaking Arctic scenery is almost endless on the world´s largest island, and with a total population of only 55,000 you are truly on your own as soon as you leave one of the small towns and settlements. Human civilisation is the exception in this country. The mountains, valleys, rivers and gigantic ice cap are practically virgin land. Hikers will experience unspoiled scenery no matter where and how. You can walk from hut to hut or - in South Greenland - from sheep croft to sheep croft. Experienced mountain hikers will find challenges with unique awards of beauty in every part of Greenland. Several travel agencies offer hiking tours to Greenland. Alternatively you can plan your own trip. Check out the detailed hiking maps! Greenland is a paradise for anglers. The Arctic char is common in most rivers and if you fish from a boat at sea or on a fjord, you may be able to hook a halibut several meters long or a record-size catfish. In the early spring it´s possible to angle the Greenlandic shark through a hole in the ice. The shark may be up to 6.5 meters long. It is also possible to join a Greenlandic fisherman to the Ilulissat ice fjord for two days to fish with long lines through holes in the ice. The kayak was originally developed by hunters in Greenland, and today kayaking is experiencing a renaissance. The fjords, straits and archipelagos are ideal waters, and several local tourist offices have sea kayaks for rental - from just a few hours to several weeks. Your experience will most likely include icebergs, seals and whales.

Delphi, Greece
Delfi
Delphi, lying on the slopes of Mt Parnassus high above the Gulf of Corinth, is one of the most famous cult sites in Greece, famed throughout the ancient Greek world and beyond as the sanctuary of Apollo and the shrine of his oracle. The site ranks with the Acropolis in Athens, Olympia and the island of Delos as one of the most important sites of the classical period of Greece; and the wealth of ancient remains combines with its magnificent mountain setting to make Delphi one of the high points of a visit to Greece. The two crags known as the Phaidriades ("Resplendent Ones"), Phlemboúkos ("Flaming") and Rodiní ("Roseate"), enclose a rocky gorge containing the Castalian Spring, from which the ravine of the river Plistos, densely planted with olive-trees, descends to Itéa Bay. At the foot of the Phaidriades, close to the Castalian spring, there was in early times a shrine of the Earth Mother, Ge, guarded by a dragon known as Python. The myth relates that the sun god Apollo killed Python and, after an act of expiation in the vale of Tempe in Thessaly, became lord of the sanctuary as Apollo Pythios. The time when this take-over occurred is indicated by the fact that the female idols previously offered at the shrine began to give place to male idols in the ninth century B.C. But although a male deity had thus displaced the earlier goddess, a woman still played a central role in the cult of the oracle of Delphi, which ranked with Olympia as the principal pan-Hellenic shrine. This was the Pythia, who sat on a tripod in the innermost sanctuary of the temple and whose stammered oracular utterances were conveyed by priests and prophets to those seeking the oracle´s advice. During the three winter months Apollo travelled north to the land of the Hyperboreans and was replaced by Dionysos. The oracle´s utterances continued during this period.

Crete, Greece
Hystory and some more info about Crete
The climate is Mediterranean, with relatively mild and wet winters and completely dry summers of subtropical heat (six to seven summer months). The island´s main sources of revenue are agriculture and, increasingly, the tourist trade. The earliest traces of human settlement, by incomers from North Africa, date back to the seventh millennium B.C. From the third millennium B.C. there developed a pre-Greek Bronze Age culture which reached its apogee between 2000 and 1600 B.C. and is known as the Minoan culture, after the legendary King Minos. The cultural and economic influence of Minoan Crete, and also the political authority of this first maritime power in the Mediterranean, were felt as far afield as the Iberian peninsula. Then, around 1400 B.C., for reasons that are not clear, Minoan power collapsed. It may have been a catastrophic earthquake, perhaps following the volcanic explosion on the island of Santorin, which destroyed the Cretan cities; or the island may have been ravaged by invaders. Whatever the cause, Crete never recovered its former importance. Towards the end of the 12th century B.C. Dorian Greeks conquered most of the island. In 66 B.C. Crete - an important base in the Mediterranean - was occupied by Rome. When the Roman Empire was divided in A.D. 395 Crete fell to the Eastern (Byzantine) Empire. In 824 it was occupied by the Saracens, but was recovered by the Empire in 961. From 1204 to 1669 it was ruled by Venice, when the people of Crete fought a long and bitter struggle for independence. Nevertheless the period of Venetian rule saw a considerable cultural flowering on Crete. Among the artists of this period was Domenikos Theotokopoulos, better known as El Greco, who was born in Fódele, near Iráklion, in 1541 (d. Toledo 1614). In 1669 Crete was captured by the Turks, who did not relinquish it until 1898. After a period of independence the reunion of Crete with Greece was finally proclaimed on October fifth, 1912 on the initiative of Elefthérios Venizélos (b. 1864 in Mourniés, near Khaniá), a lawyer and liberal politician who later became prime minister of Greece. In the spring of 1941 German airborne forces occupied Crete, which, lying between southern Europe and Africa, was of great strategic importance, and remained in occupation until May 1945. Iráklion airport, 5km/3mi east; Khaniá airport, 12km/7.5mi northeast, at Stérnes on Akrotíri peninsula; Sitía airfield, 5km/3mi north. Scheduled flights Athens-Iráklion several times daily; Rhodes or Salonica to Iráklion, several flights weekly; Athens-Khaniá, several flights daily; Rhodes-Sitía via Kárpathos and Kásos, several flights weekly.Boat services from Athens (Piraeus)-Iráklion and Athens (Piraeus)-Khaniá, twice daily (10-14 hours; cars carried); sailings, several times weekly, to Cyclades and to Rhodes via Kásos and Kárpathos.

Jerusalem, Israel
History of Jerusalem
In 688 B.C, the Temple was cleansed, walls were built round the town and a tunnel dug to secure its water supply. In 628 B.C. Josiah made Jerusalem the only legitimate Jewish place of worship (2 Kings 22f.). In 587 the town was captured by Nebuchadnezzar and many of the inhabitants were carried off to Babylon. After the end of the Babylonian ... More Captivity, in 520 B.C., the Second Temple was built. In 445 B.C. Nehemiah built a new town wall. In 332 B.C. Jerusalem came under Greek rule and was increasingly Hellenised. The desecration of the Temple by Antiochus IV sparked off the Maccabean rising of 167 B.C. Under the Maccabees and the Hasmoneans the town expanded westward on to Mount Zion. In 63 B.C. it passed into Roman control, and in 37 B.C. Herod, an Idumaean, became king of the Jews. He rebuilt and embellished the Temple platform and equipped the city with palaces, a citadel, a theater, a hippodrome, an agora and other buildings on the Hellenistic and Roman model. After his death in 4 B.C. Jerusalem became the city of the high priests, under Roman procurators. From 41 to 44 it was ruled by Agrippa I, who extended the city northward, building the Third (North) Wall. In A.D. 70 Jerusalem was destroyed by Titus, to be rebuilt by Hadrian from 135 onwards under the name of Aelia Capitolina. Jerusalem became a Christian city in 326, when the Emperor Constantine and his mother Helen built a number of churches. The Empress Eudoxia, wife of Theodosius II, who lived in Jerusalem from 444 to 460, and the Emperor Justinian (527-565) also built churches in the city. This era came to an end when Jerusalem was captured by the Persians in 614. It was recovered by the Byzantines in 627, but in 638 it was conquered by the armies of Islam. Thereafter the Omayyad Caliphs built the Dome of the Rock and the El-Aqsa Mosque. A further period of Christian rule began in 1099 with the conquest of the city by the Crusaders, who built many churches, palaces and hospices. Islam returned to Jerusalem, however, when Saladin captured the city in 1187, and it remained in Muslim hands under the Mamelukes (1291- 1517) and the Ottomans (1519-1917), who built the present town walls (1537). In the 19th century the Christian powers of Europe, which had supported the Turkish Sultan against the Egyptian ruler Ibrahim Pasha, gained increasing influence from 1840 onwards, and numbers of churches, schools, hospitals and orphanages were now built. The Pope re-established the Latin Patriarchate, which had originally been founded in 1099 but was dissolved in 1291. In 1845 a joint Anglo-Prussian episcopal see was established. The German Society of the Temple founded a settlement in Jerusalem (near the station) in 1873, and in 1881 members of an American-Swedish group established the American Colony (north of the Damascus Gate). After being banned for many centuries from living in Jerusalem, Jews began to return to the city in the 13th century. In 1267 Rabbi Moshe Ben Nahman Ramban (Nachmanides) founded a synagogue. In 1488 Jews from Egypt settled in Jerusalem, and they were followed from 1492 onwards by Sephardic Jews from Spain. The first Ashkenazis (500 Polish Jews led by Rabbi Hanassi) came in 1701. In the 18th century there were 1,000 Sephardis (the Jewish elite) and 700 Ashkenazis in the city. The pace of immigration increased in the 19th century. The first Jewish hospital was established in 1854; in 1855 Sir Moses Montefiore founded the first Jewish settlement outside the Old City, still identifiable by its windmill; in 1868 Jews from North Africa built Mahane Israel (at the corner of King David and Agron Streets); and the settlement of Mea Shearim was established in 1874. The officially recognized representative of the Jews - divided as they were into different sects - was the Sephardic Chief Rabbi. In December 1917 British forces under General Allenby entered the city, and on July first 1920 it became the seat of the British High Commissioner in the mandated territory of Palestine. In 1925 the Hebrew University was established. The United Nations resolved in 1947 that Palestine should be divided between the Arabs and the Jews and that Jerusalem should be internationalized. After the end of the British Mandate in 1948 Israeli and Jordanian forces fought for control of the city, and under a cease-fire agreement in 1949 it was partitioned. In 1950 the Israelis made West Jerusalem capital of their state; then after the Six Day War of 1967 they annexd East Jerusalem. There was further trouble in 1980, when the Israelis declared Jerusalem, including the Arab Old City, to be the "eternal capital of Israel".




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