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Greenland, Barbados
What to do in Greenland
You´ll experience icebergs almost everywhere in Greenland. In the Disko Bay, icebergs often rise up to 100 meters above the waterline - keep in mind that 90 percent of an iceberg is hidden below the surface of the sea. The world´s most active glacier at Ilulissat moves 25-30 meters a day and calves across a front 10 kilometers in width. Visiting the ice cap is possible from most towns in Greenland, although it usually takes a helicopter flight or a boat trip to reach the edge of the inland ice. In Kangerlussuaq the ice cap is only 20 kilometers away and you can hike, drive, fly or mountain bike to there - and stay overnight if you bring a tent. Springtime is the best season for dog-sledge tours and skiing although Greenland also offers first class summer skiing, even heli-skiing, on glaciers, and dog-sledge tours in the summer. Greenland hosts several international events related to ice & snow; such as the Arctic Circle Race regarded as the toughest ski race in the world, the Ice Golf World Championships, and the Nuuk Snow Sculpture Festival. As a neighbour to the North Pole, Greenland has an Arctic climate, although there are great differences from north to south, and from coast to inland. Generally speaking, the climate is very dry, and as a result, temperatures feel quite different from most other places in the world. 10-15 degrees Celsius (50-60 degrees Fahrenheit) feels very warm, while minus 10 degrees Celsius (14 degrees Fahrenheit) is equivalent to a comfortable temperature. The breathtaking Arctic scenery is almost endless on the world´s largest island, and with a total population of only 55,000 you are truly on your own as soon as you leave one of the small towns and settlements. Human civilisation is the exception in this country. The mountains, valleys, rivers and gigantic ice cap are practically virgin land. Hikers will experience unspoiled scenery no matter where and how. You can walk from hut to hut or - in South Greenland - from sheep croft to sheep croft. Experienced mountain hikers will find challenges with unique awards of beauty in every part of Greenland. Several travel agencies offer hiking tours to Greenland. Alternatively you can plan your own trip. Check out the detailed hiking maps! Greenland is a paradise for anglers. The Arctic char is common in most rivers and if you fish from a boat at sea or on a fjord, you may be able to hook a halibut several meters long or a record-size catfish. In the early spring it´s possible to angle the Greenlandic shark through a hole in the ice. The shark may be up to 6.5 meters long. It is also possible to join a Greenlandic fisherman to the Ilulissat ice fjord for two days to fish with long lines through holes in the ice. The kayak was originally developed by hunters in Greenland, and today kayaking is experiencing a renaissance. The fjords, straits and archipelagos are ideal waters, and several local tourist offices have sea kayaks for rental - from just a few hours to several weeks. Your experience will most likely include icebergs, seals and whales.

Delphi, Greece
Delfi
Delphi, lying on the slopes of Mt Parnassus high above the Gulf of Corinth, is one of the most famous cult sites in Greece, famed throughout the ancient Greek world and beyond as the sanctuary of Apollo and the shrine of his oracle. The site ranks with the Acropolis in Athens, Olympia and the island of Delos as one of the most important sites of the classical period of Greece; and the wealth of ancient remains combines with its magnificent mountain setting to make Delphi one of the high points of a visit to Greece. The two crags known as the Phaidriades ("Resplendent Ones"), Phlemboúkos ("Flaming") and Rodiní ("Roseate"), enclose a rocky gorge containing the Castalian Spring, from which the ravine of the river Plistos, densely planted with olive-trees, descends to Itéa Bay. At the foot of the Phaidriades, close to the Castalian spring, there was in early times a shrine of the Earth Mother, Ge, guarded by a dragon known as Python. The myth relates that the sun god Apollo killed Python and, after an act of expiation in the vale of Tempe in Thessaly, became lord of the sanctuary as Apollo Pythios. The time when this take-over occurred is indicated by the fact that the female idols previously offered at the shrine began to give place to male idols in the ninth century B.C. But although a male deity had thus displaced the earlier goddess, a woman still played a central role in the cult of the oracle of Delphi, which ranked with Olympia as the principal pan-Hellenic shrine. This was the Pythia, who sat on a tripod in the innermost sanctuary of the temple and whose stammered oracular utterances were conveyed by priests and prophets to those seeking the oracle´s advice. During the three winter months Apollo travelled north to the land of the Hyperboreans and was replaced by Dionysos. The oracle´s utterances continued during this period.

Crete, Greece
Hystory and some more info about Crete
The climate is Mediterranean, with relatively mild and wet winters and completely dry summers of subtropical heat (six to seven summer months). The island´s main sources of revenue are agriculture and, increasingly, the tourist trade. The earliest traces of human settlement, by incomers from North Africa, date back to the seventh millennium B.C. From the third millennium B.C. there developed a pre-Greek Bronze Age culture which reached its apogee between 2000 and 1600 B.C. and is known as the Minoan culture, after the legendary King Minos. The cultural and economic influence of Minoan Crete, and also the political authority of this first maritime power in the Mediterranean, were felt as far afield as the Iberian peninsula. Then, around 1400 B.C., for reasons that are not clear, Minoan power collapsed. It may have been a catastrophic earthquake, perhaps following the volcanic explosion on the island of Santorin, which destroyed the Cretan cities; or the island may have been ravaged by invaders. Whatever the cause, Crete never recovered its former importance. Towards the end of the 12th century B.C. Dorian Greeks conquered most of the island. In 66 B.C. Crete - an important base in the Mediterranean - was occupied by Rome. When the Roman Empire was divided in A.D. 395 Crete fell to the Eastern (Byzantine) Empire. In 824 it was occupied by the Saracens, but was recovered by the Empire in 961. From 1204 to 1669 it was ruled by Venice, when the people of Crete fought a long and bitter struggle for independence. Nevertheless the period of Venetian rule saw a considerable cultural flowering on Crete. Among the artists of this period was Domenikos Theotokopoulos, better known as El Greco, who was born in Fódele, near Iráklion, in 1541 (d. Toledo 1614). In 1669 Crete was captured by the Turks, who did not relinquish it until 1898. After a period of independence the reunion of Crete with Greece was finally proclaimed on October fifth, 1912 on the initiative of Elefthérios Venizélos (b. 1864 in Mourniés, near Khaniá), a lawyer and liberal politician who later became prime minister of Greece. In the spring of 1941 German airborne forces occupied Crete, which, lying between southern Europe and Africa, was of great strategic importance, and remained in occupation until May 1945. Iráklion airport, 5km/3mi east; Khaniá airport, 12km/7.5mi northeast, at Stérnes on Akrotíri peninsula; Sitía airfield, 5km/3mi north. Scheduled flights Athens-Iráklion several times daily; Rhodes or Salonica to Iráklion, several flights weekly; Athens-Khaniá, several flights daily; Rhodes-Sitía via Kárpathos and Kásos, several flights weekly.Boat services from Athens (Piraeus)-Iráklion and Athens (Piraeus)-Khaniá, twice daily (10-14 hours; cars carried); sailings, several times weekly, to Cyclades and to Rhodes via Kásos and Kárpathos.

Jerusalem, Israel
History of Jerusalem
In 688 B.C, the Temple was cleansed, walls were built round the town and a tunnel dug to secure its water supply. In 628 B.C. Josiah made Jerusalem the only legitimate Jewish place of worship (2 Kings 22f.). In 587 the town was captured by Nebuchadnezzar and many of the inhabitants were carried off to Babylon. After the end of the Babylonian ... More Captivity, in 520 B.C., the Second Temple was built. In 445 B.C. Nehemiah built a new town wall. In 332 B.C. Jerusalem came under Greek rule and was increasingly Hellenised. The desecration of the Temple by Antiochus IV sparked off the Maccabean rising of 167 B.C. Under the Maccabees and the Hasmoneans the town expanded westward on to Mount Zion. In 63 B.C. it passed into Roman control, and in 37 B.C. Herod, an Idumaean, became king of the Jews. He rebuilt and embellished the Temple platform and equipped the city with palaces, a citadel, a theater, a hippodrome, an agora and other buildings on the Hellenistic and Roman model. After his death in 4 B.C. Jerusalem became the city of the high priests, under Roman procurators. From 41 to 44 it was ruled by Agrippa I, who extended the city northward, building the Third (North) Wall. In A.D. 70 Jerusalem was destroyed by Titus, to be rebuilt by Hadrian from 135 onwards under the name of Aelia Capitolina. Jerusalem became a Christian city in 326, when the Emperor Constantine and his mother Helen built a number of churches. The Empress Eudoxia, wife of Theodosius II, who lived in Jerusalem from 444 to 460, and the Emperor Justinian (527-565) also built churches in the city. This era came to an end when Jerusalem was captured by the Persians in 614. It was recovered by the Byzantines in 627, but in 638 it was conquered by the armies of Islam. Thereafter the Omayyad Caliphs built the Dome of the Rock and the El-Aqsa Mosque. A further period of Christian rule began in 1099 with the conquest of the city by the Crusaders, who built many churches, palaces and hospices. Islam returned to Jerusalem, however, when Saladin captured the city in 1187, and it remained in Muslim hands under the Mamelukes (1291- 1517) and the Ottomans (1519-1917), who built the present town walls (1537). In the 19th century the Christian powers of Europe, which had supported the Turkish Sultan against the Egyptian ruler Ibrahim Pasha, gained increasing influence from 1840 onwards, and numbers of churches, schools, hospitals and orphanages were now built. The Pope re-established the Latin Patriarchate, which had originally been founded in 1099 but was dissolved in 1291. In 1845 a joint Anglo-Prussian episcopal see was established. The German Society of the Temple founded a settlement in Jerusalem (near the station) in 1873, and in 1881 members of an American-Swedish group established the American Colony (north of the Damascus Gate). After being banned for many centuries from living in Jerusalem, Jews began to return to the city in the 13th century. In 1267 Rabbi Moshe Ben Nahman Ramban (Nachmanides) founded a synagogue. In 1488 Jews from Egypt settled in Jerusalem, and they were followed from 1492 onwards by Sephardic Jews from Spain. The first Ashkenazis (500 Polish Jews led by Rabbi Hanassi) came in 1701. In the 18th century there were 1,000 Sephardis (the Jewish elite) and 700 Ashkenazis in the city. The pace of immigration increased in the 19th century. The first Jewish hospital was established in 1854; in 1855 Sir Moses Montefiore founded the first Jewish settlement outside the Old City, still identifiable by its windmill; in 1868 Jews from North Africa built Mahane Israel (at the corner of King David and Agron Streets); and the settlement of Mea Shearim was established in 1874. The officially recognized representative of the Jews - divided as they were into different sects - was the Sephardic Chief Rabbi. In December 1917 British forces under General Allenby entered the city, and on July first 1920 it became the seat of the British High Commissioner in the mandated territory of Palestine. In 1925 the Hebrew University was established. The United Nations resolved in 1947 that Palestine should be divided between the Arabs and the Jews and that Jerusalem should be internationalized. After the end of the British Mandate in 1948 Israeli and Jordanian forces fought for control of the city, and under a cease-fire agreement in 1949 it was partitioned. In 1950 the Israelis made West Jerusalem capital of their state; then after the Six Day War of 1967 they annexd East Jerusalem. There was further trouble in 1980, when the Israelis declared Jerusalem, including the Arab Old City, to be the "eternal capital of Israel".

Dublin, Ireland
History of Dublin
The oldest Irish name of the city and the one still generally used, Baile Atha Cliath, refers to the ancient ford which crossed the Liffey here. The place is mentioned by the classical geographer Ptolemy in A.D. 140 under the name of Eblana. St Patrick is believed to have visited Dublin in 448 and converted many of the inhabitants. Subsequently a Christian community grew up around the ford; then in 840 a first party of Danes occupied the town and established a fortified base for their raiding and trading activities. In 988 the Irish king Mael Sechnaill II captured the town and in 1014 the High King Brian Boru broke the power of the Danes by his victory at nearby Clontarf (now a suburb of the city). It was not until 1170 however that the Danes were finally driven out by the Anglo-Normans. Two years later Henry II came to Dublin to receive the homage of the Irish chieftains. The town now became the capital of the area under English control, the Pale (from ´palisade´), which was defended by the castles of Anglo-Norman knights. During the conflicts of the 15th and 16th century the Dubliners usually supported the opponents of the English king. In the 17th century, however, they sided with the Royalists against Cromwell - who captured the town in 1649 - and later with James II against William of Orange. In 1697 public street lighting was introduced. In the 18th century Dublin prospered, and the population rose from 65,000 to 200,000. A Wide Street Commission and a Paving Board were established to promote the development and improvement of the city, and there was a great boom in building both by public authorities and by Dublin´s prosperous citizens. At the beginning of the 19th century a brief period of independence was brought to an end by the political union with Great Britain. There followed a time of repression and resistance: in 1844 the Lord Mayor of Dublin, Daniel O´Connell, was imprisoned for "incitement to discontent", and a few years later the leaders of the Land League movement, among them Charles Stewart Parnell, were thrown into Kilmainham Jail. Political assassinations were carried out by a secret society, and separatist agitation grew. In 1916 the Easter Rising took place in Dublin, and the General Post Office and other public buildings were occupied by the rebels. In 1919, on the initiative of the Sinn Féin (We Ourselves) movement, an independent parliament met in the Mansion House, presided over by Eamon de Valera. On May 25, 1921, during the Civil War, the Custom House was set on fire. In spite of the ratification of the treaty of January 1922, which established the Irish Free State, domestic conflict continued in Dublin until 1927. It was not until 1931 that most of the public buildings were restored. During the Second World War Ireland remained neutral. In 1941, however, some German bombs were dropped in error on Dublin. Tourist Trails: A number of Tourist Trails are signposted in the city center; a brochure about them can be obtained from Tourist Information Offices. Street names are shown in both English and Irish. In many of the older streets the houses are still numbered in a continuous sequence, up one side and down the other.

Dublin, Ireland
Sobre Dublin
Dublín (Baile Atha Cliath, “Vadeo de los guarecidos por cañas o Asentamiento del vadeo de las barricadas de caña”, o Dubhlinn, "Charca Oscura (Dark Pool)") está situada en una amplia curva de la Bahía de Dublín, entre el promontorio rocoso de Howth en el norte y la punta de Dalkey en el sur. El río Liffey, que fluye hacia el puerto divide la ciudad entre la mitad norte y la mitad sur. La mayor parte del centro de la ciudad se sitúa en la orilla derecha al sur, bordeada de bellos parques, y otro núcleo se encuentra en la orilla norte. Los dos se encuentran unidos por varios pientes, el más importante de los cuales es el Puente O´Conell. Río arriba el Puente del Padre Mateo (Father Matthew) marca el punto del antiguo vado a través del Liffey. Dublín, la capital de la República de Irlanda, era, hace siglos, la única metrópolis real de las Islas Británicas aparte de Londres. A pesar de las vicisitudes de la historia irlandesa, que inevitablemente han tenido su efecto en la ciudad, ha conservado todo el aire de una capital en su atmósfera y en el modo de vida de sus habitantes. De turismo en Dublín: Aunque aparte de las dos catedrales pocos edificios de Dublín son más antiguos que del s.XVIII, las bellas calles y plazas georgianas de la ciudad, sus edificios públicos, museos y bibliotecas ofrecen tanto interés que es mejor verlos en una serie de tours separados. El carácter arquitectónico de Dublín está enmarcado no sólo por sus numerosos edificios públicos de los siglos XVIII y XIX, cuyas fachadas neoclásicas y cúpulas son testigos de la destreza de arquitectos como Sir Edward Lovett Pearce, Richard Cassels, Thomas Cooley, James Gandon y Francis Johnston, pero también por las numerosas casas privadas del mismo periodo, en un estilo sencillo pero elegante que dan unidad arquitectónica a calle tras calles. Muchas de estas casas ya han desaparecido y otras están amenazadas por la destrucción. La ciudad está en un tiempo de cambio como resultado de su todavía reciente logro de independencia y también por nuevas relaciones estrechas con otros países, combinado con una prosperidad modesta pero creciente. Los viejos edificios que se están desmoronando se demuelen y se reemplazan por otros nuevos aunque normalmente no son mejores. No obstante existe un reconocimiento de los valores que representan estos viejos edificios, y se están haciendo esfuerzos para salvarlos y adaptarlos para que sirvan para nuevos propósitos.




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